The global water desalination market is expected to witness substantial growth over the forecast period on account of water scarcity, growth in pollution, urbanization, and population. Furthermore, the market is anticipated to grow on account of technological development which has led to decrease in the cost of the desalination process. The gap between the supply and demand for freshwater for agricultural, industrial and domestic use has been growing and is anticipated to grow even further over the forecast period across the globe on account of above reasons. At the same time, the cost of desalination has been coming down. Desalination has become affordable; proving beneficial for people across different nations. Seawater is an abundant source of water which can be used for desalination and made available for the public. Affordability and extensive benefits are anticipated to be the drivers within desalination technology markets for the forecast period.
Desalination process separates salts and other minerals from water to make it available for various uses in various industries. It also refers to a process where brackish water is converted into freshwater. The awareness among people regarding desalination process has led to the development of technology with low processing cost and scope for innovation on account of which the market is expected to grow extensively. Environment-friendly processes have developed for sustainable development of desalination process industry as well as the environment. Innovation in the sector of renewable energy and is anticipated to encourage desalination in rural and inland communities. The investments are anticipated to flow in the fuel rich countries as the thermal process for desalination is expected to grow even further in the forecast period.
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Water desalination market can be bifurcated on the basis of processes in two main types into, Membranes which is further sub categorized into multiple processes of reverse osmosis (RO), Electrodialysis (ED) and Electrodialysis Reversal (EDR), Forward osmosis (FO) and Membrane Distillation (MD). In reverse osmosis, saline water is passed through membranes which let the water permeate leaving the salts behind as membranes prove to be efficient barriers to salts. The other category for water desalination is thermal processes which comprise of multi-stage flash distillation, multiple effect distillation, and vapor compression. Over 60% of water desalination of the world is done by multi-stage distillation process in which portions of water is flashed into steam with different stages of temperature. Advancements in the field of water desalination and reduced costs of desalination processes have attracted many investors to spend on desalination projects.
New environmental regulations and a growing public awareness towards the impact on the environment of desalination processes have changed the landscape of the water desalination industry. New opportunities are anticipated to emerge owing to the adoption of sustainable desalination approaches. Few methods of distillation such as evaporation plants, solar stills, and condensation traps do not discharge brine and do not utilize chemicals for distillation or the use of fossil fuels making them environment-friendly.
The market in the Middle East & Africa is anticipated to grow at a higher rate than any other region owing to the large fossil fuel deposits in countries like Saudi Arabia, Algeria, Dubai and South Africa which are used in thermal processes of water desalination. Various projects are anticipated to emerge on account of the above reason in the Middle East & African region. The market in Asia Pacific is a developing market with developing infrastructure owing to which various projects are anticipated to emerge and increase in market potential is expected. The market of North America has a considerable amount of water desalination plants, however, the market is anticipated to grow owing to the rising awareness amongst people and companies about the limited sources of freshwater.
The major contributors in the water desalination technology industry are General Electric, Doosan Heavy Industries and Co., Acciona, Genesis Water Technologies, Koch Membrane Systems, Degremont Sas, IDE Technologies, Hyflux Ltd., Biwater, and Cadagua.
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